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Request PDF | On Jan 1, , Jeanine Suurmond and others published Een Surinaamse man met schizofrenie | Find, read and cite all the research you need​. Suriname (niederländisch [syːriˈnaːmə], deutsch [ ˈzuːʁɪˌnaːmə]), deutsch auch Dezember führte man das allgemeine Wahlrecht ein; auch Frauen Die beliebteste Sportart in Suriname wird durch den Surinaamse Voetbal. Sranantongo (auch kurz Sranan, Niederländisch: Surinaams); früher auch abwertend als Leer- en werkboek Surinaamse cultuur, Den Haag , ISBN Eddy van der Hilst: Skrifi Sranantongo Bun, Leysi En Bun Tu. Drukkerij. Pip Pellens komt net terug uit Suriname en test haar talenknobbel uit op Gio en Keizer. Abonneer je GRATIS voor meer video's. SPANJE: Ray wordt gebeld door zijn Surinaamse vriend Wilfred. "Ray, geloof me​, dit is de allergrootste man uit mijn land, ze hebben een kapitein nodig".

Surinaamse man

Suriname (niederländisch [syːriˈnaːmə], deutsch [ ˈzuːʁɪˌnaːmə]), deutsch auch Dezember führte man das allgemeine Wahlrecht ein; auch Frauen Die beliebteste Sportart in Suriname wird durch den Surinaamse Voetbal. SPANJE: Ray wordt gebeld door zijn Surinaamse vriend Wilfred. "Ray, geloof me​, dit is de allergrootste man uit mijn land, ze hebben een kapitein nodig". werkschaftsverbandes: Johan A. Pengel — Ministerpräsident von Surinam. Schon bald bemerkt man, wie weitreichend der Einfluß der Surinaamse Werknemers.

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Surinaamse man te Nickerie beweerd een buitenaards wezen in zijn huis gezien te hebben !!! Video Archived from the original PDF on 10 September On Xxx faking NovemberSuriname left the The walking dead a hardcore parody to become an independent state, nonetheless maintaining Sankaku posts economic, diplomatic, Dickgirls fucking cultural ties to its former colonizer. The Carib also settled in the area and conquered the Arawak by using their superior sailing ships. Retrieved 4 November Wikimedia Commons Wikinews Wikivoyage. The beaches on the eastern part of the coast are breeding grounds for marine turtles, which are protected by law. The Global Burden of Disease Study provides Riesen ladung sperma on-line data source for analyzing Www.free porno estimates of health Madison ivy porn gifs Surinaamse man and injuries and 84 risk Pattaya sex from to in most of the world's countries. Surinaamse man

Brazil signed agreements to cooperate with Suriname in education, health, agriculture, and energy production. The President is assisted by the Minister of Defence.

After the creation of the Statute of the Kingdom of the Netherlands , the Royal Netherlands Army was entrusted with the defense of Suriname, while the defense of the Netherlands Antilles was the responsibility of the Royal Netherlands Navy.

The country is divided into ten administrative districts, each headed by a district commissioner appointed by the president, who also has the power of dismissal.

Suriname is further subdivided into 62 resorts ressorten. Suriname is the smallest independent country in South America.

The country can be divided into two main geographic regions. The northern, lowland coastal area roughly above the line Albina-Paranam-Wageningen has been cultivated, and most of the population lives here.

Suriname is situated between French Guiana to the east and Guyana to the west. The southern border is shared with Brazil and the northern border is the Atlantic coast.

The southernmost borders with French Guiana and Guyana are disputed by these countries along the Marowijne and Corantijn rivers, respectively, while a part of the disputed maritime boundary with Guyana was arbitrated by a tribunal convened under the rules set out in Annex VII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on 20 September Lying 2 to 5 degrees north of the equator , Suriname has a very hot and wet tropical climate , and temperatures do not vary much throughout the year.

Its average temperature ranges from 29 to 34 degrees Celsius 84 to 93 degrees Fahrenheit. Due to the high humidity, actual temperatures are distorted and may therefore feel up to 6 degrees Celsius 11 degrees Fahrenheit hotter than the recorded temperature.

The year has two wet seasons , from April to August and from November to February. It also has two dry seasons , from August to November and February to April.

Suriname is already seeing the effects of climate change , including warming temperatures and more extreme weather events. As a relatively poor country, its contributions to climate change have been limited; moreover, because of the large forest cover the country has been running a carbon-negative economy since Suriname's democracy gained some strength after the turbulent s, and its economy became more diversified and less dependent on Dutch financial assistance.

Bauxite aluminium ore mining used to be a strong revenue source. The discovery and exploitation of oil and gold has added substantially to Suriname's economic independence.

Agriculture, especially rice and bananas, remains a strong component of the economy, and ecotourism is providing new economic opportunities.

Other main export products include rice, bananas and shrimp. Suriname has recently started exploiting some of its sizeable oil [56] and gold [57] reserves.

About a quarter of the people work in the agricultural sector. The Surinamese economy is very dependent on commerce, its main trade partners being the Netherlands, the United States, Canada, and Caribbean countries, mainly Trinidad and Tobago and the islands of the former Netherlands Antilles.

After assuming power in the fall of , the Wijdenbosch government ended the structural adjustment program of the previous government, claiming it was unfair to the poorer elements of society.

Tax revenues fell as old taxes lapsed and the government failed to implement new tax alternatives. By the end of , the allocation of new Dutch development funds was frozen as Surinamese Government relations with the Netherlands deteriorated.

Economic growth slowed in , with decline in the mining, construction, and utility sectors. The government sought to cover this deficit through monetary expansion, which led to a dramatic increase in inflation.

It takes longer on average to register a new business in Suriname than virtually any other country in the world days or about 99 weeks.

According to the census, Suriname had a population of , inhabitants. This is a legacy of centuries of Dutch rule, which entailed successive periods of forced, contracted, or voluntary migration by various nationalities and ethnic groups from around the world.

The largest ethnic group are the East Indians which form about They are descendants of 19th-century contract workers from India , hailing mostly from the modern Indian states of Bihar , Jharkhand, and Eastern Uttar Pradesh along the Nepali border.

The largest group of people are however the Afro-Surinamese ; around Surinamese Maroons , whose ancestors are mostly runaway slaves that fled to the interior, comprise Surinamese Creoles , mixed people descending from African slaves and mostly Dutch Europeans, form Chinese , originating from 19th-century contract workers and some recent migration, make up 7.

Other groups include Lebanese , primarily Maronites ; Jews of Sephardic and Ashkenazi , whose center of population was the community of Jodensavanne.

Various indigenous peoples make up 3. They are descended mostly from Dutch 19th-century immigrant farmers, known as " Boeroes " derived from boer , the Dutch word for "farmer" , and to a lesser degree other European groups, such as Portuguese from Madeira.

Many Boeroes left after independence in More recently Suriname has seen a new wave of immigrants; many of them have no legal status.

These are namely Brazilians many of them laborers mining for gold , Cubans , Dominicans and Haitians. The choice of becoming Surinamese or Dutch citizens in the years leading up to Suriname's independence in led to a mass migration to the Netherlands.

This migration continued in the period immediately after independence and during military rule in the s and for largely economic reasons extended throughout the s.

The Surinamese community in the Netherlands numbered , as of [update] including children and grandchildren of Suriname migrants born in The Netherlands ; this is compared to approximately , [13] Surinamese in Suriname itself.

According to the International Organization for Migration , around , people from Suriname lived in other countries in the late s, in particular in the Netherlands ca , , the French Republic ca 25,, most of them in French Guiana , [note 2] the United States ca 15, , Guyana ca 5, , Aruba ca 1, , and Canada ca 1, Suriname's religious makeup is heterogeneous and reflective of the country's multicultural character.

According to the census, Hindus formed the second-largest religious group in Suriname, comprising Almost all practitioners of Hinduism are found among the Indo-Surinamese population.

Muslims constitute In the census, 7. Suriname has a total of around 14 local languages. Yet only Dutch is the sole official language; it is the language of education, government, business, and the media.

In , Suriname became an associate member of the Dutch Language Union. In Paramaribo, Dutch is the main home language in two-thirds of the households.

Sranantongo , a local English based creole language , is the most widely used vernacular language in day-to-day life and business.

Together with Dutch it is considered to be the one of the two principal languages of Surinamese diglossia ; both are further influenced by other spoken languages which are spoken primarily within ethnic communities.

Sranantongo is often used interchangeably with Dutch depending on the formality of the setting, where Dutch is seen as a prestige dialect and Sranan Tongo the common vernacular.

Caribbean Hindustani or Sarnami, a dialect of Bhojpuri , is the third-most used language. It is primarily spoken by the descendants of East Indian indentured laborers from formerly known as British India.

The Javanese language is somewhat used by the descendants of Javanese contract workers. Aluku , Paramakan and Kwinti are mutually intelligible with Okanisi.

So much so that they can be consindered dialects of the Okanisi language. The same can be said about Matawai , which is mutually intelligible with Saramaka.

Hakka and Cantonese are spoken by the descendants of the Chinese contract workers. Mandarin is spoken by the recent wave of Chinese immigrants. Lebanese Arabic is spoken by some older generation Surinamese Lebanese.

The national capital, Paramaribo, is by far the dominant urban area, accounting for nearly half of Suriname's population and most of its urban residents; indeed, its population is greater than the next nine largest cities combined.

Most municipalities are located within the capital's metropolitan area, or along the densely populated coastline.

Owing to the country's multicultural heritage, Suriname celebrates a variety of distinct ethnic and religious festivals.

These holidays do not have fixed dates on the Gregorian calendar , as they are based on the Hindu and Islamic calendars , respectively.

As of , Eid-ul-adha is a national holiday, and equal to a Sunday. There are several holidays which are unique to Suriname. These include the Indian, Javanese and Chinese arrival days.

They celebrate the arrival of the first ships with their respective immigrants. It is during this period that the Surinamese population goes to the city's commercial district to watch "demonstrational fireworks ".

The bigger stores invest in these firecrackers and display them out in the streets. Every year the length of them is compared, and high praises are given for the company that has imported the largest ribbon.

These celebrations start at 10 in the morning and finish the next day. The day is usually filled with laughter, dance, music, and drinking.

When the night starts, the big street parties are already at full capacity. The parties there stop between 10 and 11 at night, after which people go home to light their pagaras red-firecracker-ribbons at midnight.

After 12, the parties continue and the streets fill again until daybreak. The major sports in Suriname are football , basketball , and volleyball.

The Suriname Olympic Committee is the national governing body for sports in Suriname. The major mind sports are chess , draughts , bridge and troefcall.

In , Humphrey Mijnals , who played for both Suriname and the Netherlands, was elected Surinamese footballer of the century.

In addition, she also won a bronze medal at the World Championships and won several medals in the and metres at the Pan-American Games and Central American and Caribbean Games.

Tommy Asinga also received acclaim for winning a bronze medal in the metres at the Pan American Games. Swimmer Anthony Nesty is the only Olympic medalist for Suriname.

He won gold in the meter butterfly at the Summer Olympics in Seoul and he won bronze in the same discipline at the Summer Olympics in Barcelona.

Originally from Trinidad and Tobago , he now lives in Gainesville, Florida , and is the coach of the University of Florida, mainly coaching distance swimmers.

Cricket is popular in Suriname to some extent, influenced by its popularity in the Netherlands and in neighbouring Guyana.

Iris Jharap , born in Paramaribo, played women's One Day International matches for the Dutch national side , the only Surinamese to do so. Virgil Soeroredjo also participated for Suriname at the London Summer Olympics , only the second badminton player, after Oscar Brandon , for Suriname to achieve this.

Suriname also has a national korfball team , with korfball being a Dutch sport. Vinkensport is also practised. Suriname, along with neighboring Guyana , is one of only two countries on the mainland South American continent that drive on the left, although many vehicles are left hand drive as well as right hand drive.

The Global Burden of Disease Study provides an on-line data source for analyzing updated estimates of health for diseases and injuries and 84 risk factors from to in most of the world's countries.

In the death rate was per , Life expectancy in was 72 years males 69, females From elementary school to high school there are 13 grades. The elementary school has six grades, middle school four grades and high school three grades.

Students take a test in the end of elementary school to determine whether they will go to the MULO secondary modern school or a middle school of lower standards like LBO.

Students from the elementary school wear a green shirt with jeans, while middle school students wear a blue shirt with jeans. Students going from the second grade of middle school to the third grade have to choose between the business or science courses.

This will determine what their major subjects will be. In order to go on to study math and physics, the student must have a total of 12 points.

Due to the variety of habitats and temperatures, biodiversity in Suriname is considered high. Snakewood Brosimum guianense , a shrub-like tree, is native to this tropical region of the Americas.

Customs in Suriname report that snakewood is often illegally exported to French Guiana, thought to be for the crafts industry.

As in other parts of Central and South America, indigenous communities have increased their activism to protect their lands and preserve habitat.

In March , the " Trio and Wayana communities presented a declaration of cooperation to the National Assembly of Suriname that announces an indigenous conservation corridor spanning 72, square kilometers 27, square miles of southern Suriname.

Traditionally, De Ware Tijd was the major newspaper of the country, but since the '90s Times of Suriname , De West and Dagblad Suriname have also been well-read newspapers; all publish primarily in Dutch.

Suriname has twenty-four radio stations, most of them also broadcast through the Internet. There are twelve television sources: ABC Ch.

Also listened to is mArt , a broadcaster from Amsterdam founded by people from Suriname. Kondreman is one of the popular cartoons in Suriname.

Most tourists visit Suriname for the biodiversity of the Amazonian rain forests in the south of the country, which are noted for their flora and fauna.

The Central Suriname Nature Reserve is the biggest and one of the most popular reserves, along with the Brownsberg Nature Park which overlooks the Brokopondo Reservoir , one of the largest man-made lakes in the world.

The Maroons have learned that colorful and ornate pangis are popular with tourists. There are also many waterfalls throughout the country.

Raleighvallen, or Raleigh Falls, is a 56,hectare ,acre nature reserve on the Coppename River , rich in bird life. Tafelberg Mountain in the centre of the country is surrounded by its own reserve — the Tafelberg Nature Reserve — around the source of the Saramacca River , as is the Voltzberg Nature Reserve further north on the Coppename River at Raleighvallen.

In the interior are many Maroon and Amerindian villages, many of which have their own reserves that are generally open to visitors.

Suriname is one of the few countries in the world where at least one of each biome that the state possesses has been declared a wildlife reserve.

Other attractions include plantations such as Laarwijk , which is situated along the Suriname River. This plantation can be reached only by boat via Domburg, in the north central Wanica District of Suriname.

Crime rates continue to rise in Paramaribo and armed robberies are not uncommon. According to the current U. Department of State Travel Advisory at the date of the report's publication, Suriname has been assessed as Level 1: exercise normal precautions.

The bridge was built during the tenure of President Jules Albert Wijdenbosch — and was completed in It connects Paramaribo with Commewijne, a connection which previously could only be made by ferry.

The purpose of the bridge was to facilitate and promote the development of the eastern part of Suriname.

The bridge consists of two lanes one lane each way and is not accessible to pedestrians. The construction of the Sts. Peter and Paul Cathedral started on 13 January Before it became a cathedral it was a theatre.

The theatre was built in and burned down in Suriname is one of the few countries in the world where a synagogue is located next to a mosque.

A special characteristic of the temple is that it does not have images of the Hindu divinities, as they are forbidden in the Arya Samaj , the Hindu movement to which the people who built the temple belong.

Instead, the building is covered by many texts derived from the Vedas and other Hindu scriptures. The beautiful architecture makes the temple a tourist attraction.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the former Dutch colony, see Surinam Dutch colony. For the constituent country in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, see Suriname Kingdom of the Netherlands.

For other uses, see Suriname disambiguation. Country in South America. Douglas 3. Main article: History of Suriname. Main article: Surinam Dutch colony.

Main article: Willoughbyland. Further information: Human rights in Suriname. See also: Decolonization of the Americas.

Main article: Politics of Suriname. Main article: Foreign relations of Suriname. Main article: Military of Suriname.

Main articles: Districts of Suriname and Resorts of Suriname. Main article: Geography of Suriname. Main article: Borders of Suriname.

This section is an excerpt from Climate change in Suriname [ edit ]. Main article: Economy of Suriname. Main articles: Demographics of Suriname and Surinamese people.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Ethnic groups of Suriname [60] Ethnic groups percent Hindustani. Main article: Religion in Suriname. Religion in Suriname, [7] Religion Percent Christianity.

Largest cities or towns in Suriname [68]. Main article: Culture of Suriname. Main article: Health in Suriname.

Main article: Education in Suriname. Main article: Biodiversity in Suriname. Suriname portal Caribbean portal. Archived from the original PDF on 29 June Archived from the original PDF on 10 September Retrieved 24 July Archived from the original on 13 November Retrieved 13 July Algemeen Bureau voor de Statistiek — Suriname.

Retrieved 9 November International Monetary Fund. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 9 December World Bank.

Retrieved 5 December The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 August October The International and Comparative Law Quarterly.

De West-Indische Gids. In , the states of Holland granted to any Dutch citizen a four years' monopoly of any harbour or place of commerce which he might discover in that region Guiana.

In a United Nations international tribunal settled another long-standing boundary dispute between the two countries, in which Suriname was awarded one-third of a disputed area of the Caribbean Sea.

The area in contention with French Guiana is the 5,square-mile 13,square-km region between the Itany and Marouini rivers in the southwestern corner of French Guiana.

The narrow coastal zone, some miles km long, consists of sandbanks and mudbanks deposited by the southern equatorial currents from the area surrounding the mouth of the Amazon River located to the east of Suriname, in Brazil.

South of the mudbanks begins the New Coastal Plain, also formed from sand and clay from the mouth of the Amazon. The region, covering some 6, square miles 17, square km , consists of swampland.

The soil of the swamps is clay, in which a great deal of peat has formed. The region is traversed by sandy ridges that run parallel to the coast.

It consists largely of fine clays and sands and contains a variety of topographies , including old ridges, clay flats, and swamps.

South of the Old Coastal Plain is the Zanderij formation , a mile- km- wide landscape of rolling hills. This formation rests on bleached sand sediments, which are rich in quartz.

Most of the region is covered by tropical rainforest, but swamps and areas of savanna grassland are also found. Farther to the south, bordering Brazil, is an area consisting largely of a central mountain range, its various branches, and scattered hilly areas; a vast tropical rainforest covers these highlands.

The highest summit, at 4, feet 1, metres , is Juliana Top, in the Wilhelmina Mountains. In the southwest near the Brazilian border is the Sipaliwini Plain, another savanna area.

They include the Courantyne , which forms part of the boundary with Guyana; the Coppename; the Suriname ; and the Maroni , which forms part of the border with French Guiana.

Suriname has a tropical climate. The populated area in the north has four seasons: a minor rainy season from early December to early February, a minor dry season from early February to late April, a major rainy season from late April to mid-August, and a major dry season from mid-August to early December.

In the interior, diurnal temperature extremes can vary by as much as about 20 degrees. However, the range in average temperatures between the warmest month, September, and the coldest, January, is only about 3 degrees.

Rainfall is highest in the central and southeastern parts of the country. Annual rainfall averages about 75 inches 1, mm in the west and 95 inches 2, mm in Paramaribo.

The flora of the coastal area is better known than that of the interior. It consists of some 4, species of ferns and seed plants and a large number of mosses, weeds, and mildews.

The baboen Virola surinamensis , which grows in the coastal area, is used to make plywood. The kapok Ceiba pentandra reaches a height of more than feet 45 metres.

The Central Suriname Nature Reserve, covering nearly 3,, acres 1,, hectares , was established in June in west-central Suriname. There are some species of mammals, including monkeys, wild pigs, deer, manatees, jaguars, ocelots, armadillos, sloths, and anteaters.

The tapir is the largest land mammal. Reptiles include caimans, iguanas, and the boa constrictor.

Im Jahr erhielten Suriname wie auch die Niederländischen Antillen Fantasy roleplay porn Status eines gleichberechtigten und sich selbst verwaltenden Teils des Königreichs der Niederlande. Suriname Uruguay Venezuela. Daher spricht man auch von einem Tauschhandel. Band 1. Die Amtssprache ist Niederländisch. Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg gab Milena wiley Bemühungen, Sranantongo als Nationalsprache Surinames zu etablieren, Pussy cleaning wurde nie ein offizielles Wörterbuch oder eine offizielle Grammatik veröffentlicht. Die All free porn tubes folgen der Bewegung der innertropischen Konvergenzzone ITCwobei die Grenzen zwischen den Jahreszeiten vor allem im Küstenbereich durch den Einfluss des Atlantischen Ozeans und der dazugehörigen Seewindzirkulation nicht scharf zu trennen sind.

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Einige Bewohner Fauna des Regenwaldes sind u. Linguistische Klassifikation. Anzumerken ist noch, dass auf den Stränden bei Galibi besondere Populationen von Meeresschildkröten von den Kariben Aikanti genannt zur Eiablage verweilen. Während die Niederlande an Frankreich angeschlossen waren, besetzten die Briten — und — Niederländisch-Guayana. Chile Ecuador Guyana. Wie in den meisten tropischen Ländern ist die Natur auch in Suriname gefährdet durch Raubbau , wie u. Von bis wurde ein Stausee angelegt, der zur Stromerzeugung aufgestaute Brokopondo-Stausee. Surinaamse man de Indem man demütig sein Denken und Handeln nach Gottes Grundsätzen ausrichtet, wie das die folgende Erfahrung aus Suriname zeigt (Epheser )​. Ein typisches Gericht für Festtage ist Pom. Es wird im Ofen zubereitet. Zutaten sind Huhn, Zitronensaft und Tannia. Von diesen Pflanzen isst man. werkschaftsverbandes: Johan A. Pengel — Ministerpräsident von Surinam. Schon bald bemerkt man, wie weitreichend der Einfluß der Surinaamse Werknemers. In: Dieter Nohlen Hrsg. Auch die Perspektiven werden negativ bewertet. Eine erste dauerhafte europäische Siedlung wurde von Engländern im Steph kegel xxx von Francis Willoughby eingerichtet. In der ersten Hälfte des Nach dem Zweiten Tunisia porn gab es Bemühungen, Sranantongo als Nationalsprache Surinames zu etablieren, doch wurde nie ein offizielles Liza_rowe oder eine offizielle Grammatik veröffentlicht. Zusammen mit Suriname bildeten sie das so genannte Niederländisch-Guayana. Da aber weiterhin Sklaven flohen, bildeten diese wiederum eigene Gemeinschaften, die später auch in gleicher Weise vertraglich eingebunden wurden. Bei der Vielzahl der Namen kam es hierbei zu den skurrilsten Wortschöpfungen. November griff eine militärische Einheit das Helena bonham carter fight club Moiwana an, Hot girls make das Haus Ms michele nude Ronnie Brunswijk nieder und tötete mindestens 35 Personen, die meisten Mature good looking women porn sites Frauen und Kinder. Theresa russell sex scene in Suriname. Futanari bbw Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Siehe auch : Liste der Kreolsprachen. In seinem Bericht vom Anlässlich der Unabhängigkeit erhielt Suriname Surinaamse man der Originalausgaben von den Niederlanden als Geschenk. Die Ärztedichte Hon älskade en sommar in Mallorca titten frühen er Jahren bei 45 pro

This court supervises the magistrate courts. He is the main suspect in the court case concerning the 'December murders,' the assassination of opponents of military rule in Fort Zeelandia , Paramaribo.

These two cases still strain relations between the Netherlands and Suriname. Due to Suriname's Dutch colonial history, Suriname had a long-standing special relationship with the Netherlands.

The Dutch government has stated that it will only maintain limited contact with the president. Bouterse was elected as president of Suriname in The Netherlands in July dropped Suriname as a member of its development program.

Since , the United States has maintained positive relations with Suriname. Suriname also receives military funding from the U.

Department of Defense. European Union relations and cooperation with Suriname are carried out both on a bilateral and a regional basis. On 17 February , the leaders of Barbados and Suriname signed the "Agreement for the deepening of bilateral cooperation between the Government of Barbados and the Government of the Republic of Suriname.

Their representatives reviewed issues of agriculture, trade, investment, as well as international transport. In the late s, Suriname intensified development cooperation with other developing countries.

China's South-South cooperation with Suriname has included a number of large-scale infrastructure projects, including port rehabilitation and road construction.

Brazil signed agreements to cooperate with Suriname in education, health, agriculture, and energy production.

The President is assisted by the Minister of Defence. After the creation of the Statute of the Kingdom of the Netherlands , the Royal Netherlands Army was entrusted with the defense of Suriname, while the defense of the Netherlands Antilles was the responsibility of the Royal Netherlands Navy.

The country is divided into ten administrative districts, each headed by a district commissioner appointed by the president, who also has the power of dismissal.

Suriname is further subdivided into 62 resorts ressorten. Suriname is the smallest independent country in South America.

The country can be divided into two main geographic regions. The northern, lowland coastal area roughly above the line Albina-Paranam-Wageningen has been cultivated, and most of the population lives here.

Suriname is situated between French Guiana to the east and Guyana to the west. The southern border is shared with Brazil and the northern border is the Atlantic coast.

The southernmost borders with French Guiana and Guyana are disputed by these countries along the Marowijne and Corantijn rivers, respectively, while a part of the disputed maritime boundary with Guyana was arbitrated by a tribunal convened under the rules set out in Annex VII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on 20 September Lying 2 to 5 degrees north of the equator , Suriname has a very hot and wet tropical climate , and temperatures do not vary much throughout the year.

Its average temperature ranges from 29 to 34 degrees Celsius 84 to 93 degrees Fahrenheit. Due to the high humidity, actual temperatures are distorted and may therefore feel up to 6 degrees Celsius 11 degrees Fahrenheit hotter than the recorded temperature.

The year has two wet seasons , from April to August and from November to February. It also has two dry seasons , from August to November and February to April.

Suriname is already seeing the effects of climate change , including warming temperatures and more extreme weather events. As a relatively poor country, its contributions to climate change have been limited; moreover, because of the large forest cover the country has been running a carbon-negative economy since Suriname's democracy gained some strength after the turbulent s, and its economy became more diversified and less dependent on Dutch financial assistance.

Bauxite aluminium ore mining used to be a strong revenue source. The discovery and exploitation of oil and gold has added substantially to Suriname's economic independence.

Agriculture, especially rice and bananas, remains a strong component of the economy, and ecotourism is providing new economic opportunities.

Other main export products include rice, bananas and shrimp. Suriname has recently started exploiting some of its sizeable oil [56] and gold [57] reserves.

About a quarter of the people work in the agricultural sector. The Surinamese economy is very dependent on commerce, its main trade partners being the Netherlands, the United States, Canada, and Caribbean countries, mainly Trinidad and Tobago and the islands of the former Netherlands Antilles.

After assuming power in the fall of , the Wijdenbosch government ended the structural adjustment program of the previous government, claiming it was unfair to the poorer elements of society.

Tax revenues fell as old taxes lapsed and the government failed to implement new tax alternatives. By the end of , the allocation of new Dutch development funds was frozen as Surinamese Government relations with the Netherlands deteriorated.

Economic growth slowed in , with decline in the mining, construction, and utility sectors. The government sought to cover this deficit through monetary expansion, which led to a dramatic increase in inflation.

It takes longer on average to register a new business in Suriname than virtually any other country in the world days or about 99 weeks.

According to the census, Suriname had a population of , inhabitants. This is a legacy of centuries of Dutch rule, which entailed successive periods of forced, contracted, or voluntary migration by various nationalities and ethnic groups from around the world.

The largest ethnic group are the East Indians which form about They are descendants of 19th-century contract workers from India , hailing mostly from the modern Indian states of Bihar , Jharkhand, and Eastern Uttar Pradesh along the Nepali border.

The largest group of people are however the Afro-Surinamese ; around Surinamese Maroons , whose ancestors are mostly runaway slaves that fled to the interior, comprise Surinamese Creoles , mixed people descending from African slaves and mostly Dutch Europeans, form Chinese , originating from 19th-century contract workers and some recent migration, make up 7.

Other groups include Lebanese , primarily Maronites ; Jews of Sephardic and Ashkenazi , whose center of population was the community of Jodensavanne.

Various indigenous peoples make up 3. They are descended mostly from Dutch 19th-century immigrant farmers, known as " Boeroes " derived from boer , the Dutch word for "farmer" , and to a lesser degree other European groups, such as Portuguese from Madeira.

Many Boeroes left after independence in More recently Suriname has seen a new wave of immigrants; many of them have no legal status. These are namely Brazilians many of them laborers mining for gold , Cubans , Dominicans and Haitians.

The choice of becoming Surinamese or Dutch citizens in the years leading up to Suriname's independence in led to a mass migration to the Netherlands.

This migration continued in the period immediately after independence and during military rule in the s and for largely economic reasons extended throughout the s.

The Surinamese community in the Netherlands numbered , as of [update] including children and grandchildren of Suriname migrants born in The Netherlands ; this is compared to approximately , [13] Surinamese in Suriname itself.

According to the International Organization for Migration , around , people from Suriname lived in other countries in the late s, in particular in the Netherlands ca , , the French Republic ca 25,, most of them in French Guiana , [note 2] the United States ca 15, , Guyana ca 5, , Aruba ca 1, , and Canada ca 1, Suriname's religious makeup is heterogeneous and reflective of the country's multicultural character.

According to the census, Hindus formed the second-largest religious group in Suriname, comprising Almost all practitioners of Hinduism are found among the Indo-Surinamese population.

Muslims constitute In the census, 7. Suriname has a total of around 14 local languages. Yet only Dutch is the sole official language; it is the language of education, government, business, and the media.

In , Suriname became an associate member of the Dutch Language Union. In Paramaribo, Dutch is the main home language in two-thirds of the households.

Sranantongo , a local English based creole language , is the most widely used vernacular language in day-to-day life and business. Together with Dutch it is considered to be the one of the two principal languages of Surinamese diglossia ; both are further influenced by other spoken languages which are spoken primarily within ethnic communities.

Sranantongo is often used interchangeably with Dutch depending on the formality of the setting, where Dutch is seen as a prestige dialect and Sranan Tongo the common vernacular.

Caribbean Hindustani or Sarnami, a dialect of Bhojpuri , is the third-most used language. It is primarily spoken by the descendants of East Indian indentured laborers from formerly known as British India.

The Javanese language is somewhat used by the descendants of Javanese contract workers. Aluku , Paramakan and Kwinti are mutually intelligible with Okanisi.

So much so that they can be consindered dialects of the Okanisi language. The same can be said about Matawai , which is mutually intelligible with Saramaka.

Hakka and Cantonese are spoken by the descendants of the Chinese contract workers. Mandarin is spoken by the recent wave of Chinese immigrants.

Lebanese Arabic is spoken by some older generation Surinamese Lebanese. The national capital, Paramaribo, is by far the dominant urban area, accounting for nearly half of Suriname's population and most of its urban residents; indeed, its population is greater than the next nine largest cities combined.

Most municipalities are located within the capital's metropolitan area, or along the densely populated coastline. Owing to the country's multicultural heritage, Suriname celebrates a variety of distinct ethnic and religious festivals.

These holidays do not have fixed dates on the Gregorian calendar , as they are based on the Hindu and Islamic calendars , respectively.

As of , Eid-ul-adha is a national holiday, and equal to a Sunday. There are several holidays which are unique to Suriname.

These include the Indian, Javanese and Chinese arrival days. They celebrate the arrival of the first ships with their respective immigrants.

It is during this period that the Surinamese population goes to the city's commercial district to watch "demonstrational fireworks ".

The bigger stores invest in these firecrackers and display them out in the streets. Every year the length of them is compared, and high praises are given for the company that has imported the largest ribbon.

These celebrations start at 10 in the morning and finish the next day. The day is usually filled with laughter, dance, music, and drinking.

When the night starts, the big street parties are already at full capacity. The parties there stop between 10 and 11 at night, after which people go home to light their pagaras red-firecracker-ribbons at midnight.

After 12, the parties continue and the streets fill again until daybreak. The major sports in Suriname are football , basketball , and volleyball.

The Suriname Olympic Committee is the national governing body for sports in Suriname. The major mind sports are chess , draughts , bridge and troefcall.

In , Humphrey Mijnals , who played for both Suriname and the Netherlands, was elected Surinamese footballer of the century. In addition, she also won a bronze medal at the World Championships and won several medals in the and metres at the Pan-American Games and Central American and Caribbean Games.

Tommy Asinga also received acclaim for winning a bronze medal in the metres at the Pan American Games. Swimmer Anthony Nesty is the only Olympic medalist for Suriname.

He won gold in the meter butterfly at the Summer Olympics in Seoul and he won bronze in the same discipline at the Summer Olympics in Barcelona. Originally from Trinidad and Tobago , he now lives in Gainesville, Florida , and is the coach of the University of Florida, mainly coaching distance swimmers.

Cricket is popular in Suriname to some extent, influenced by its popularity in the Netherlands and in neighbouring Guyana. Iris Jharap , born in Paramaribo, played women's One Day International matches for the Dutch national side , the only Surinamese to do so.

Virgil Soeroredjo also participated for Suriname at the London Summer Olympics , only the second badminton player, after Oscar Brandon , for Suriname to achieve this.

Suriname also has a national korfball team , with korfball being a Dutch sport. Vinkensport is also practised. Suriname, along with neighboring Guyana , is one of only two countries on the mainland South American continent that drive on the left, although many vehicles are left hand drive as well as right hand drive.

The Global Burden of Disease Study provides an on-line data source for analyzing updated estimates of health for diseases and injuries and 84 risk factors from to in most of the world's countries.

In the death rate was per , Life expectancy in was 72 years males 69, females From elementary school to high school there are 13 grades. The elementary school has six grades, middle school four grades and high school three grades.

Students take a test in the end of elementary school to determine whether they will go to the MULO secondary modern school or a middle school of lower standards like LBO.

Students from the elementary school wear a green shirt with jeans, while middle school students wear a blue shirt with jeans.

Students going from the second grade of middle school to the third grade have to choose between the business or science courses.

This will determine what their major subjects will be. In order to go on to study math and physics, the student must have a total of 12 points.

Due to the variety of habitats and temperatures, biodiversity in Suriname is considered high. Snakewood Brosimum guianense , a shrub-like tree, is native to this tropical region of the Americas.

Customs in Suriname report that snakewood is often illegally exported to French Guiana, thought to be for the crafts industry. As in other parts of Central and South America, indigenous communities have increased their activism to protect their lands and preserve habitat.

In March , the " Trio and Wayana communities presented a declaration of cooperation to the National Assembly of Suriname that announces an indigenous conservation corridor spanning 72, square kilometers 27, square miles of southern Suriname.

Traditionally, De Ware Tijd was the major newspaper of the country, but since the '90s Times of Suriname , De West and Dagblad Suriname have also been well-read newspapers; all publish primarily in Dutch.

Suriname has twenty-four radio stations, most of them also broadcast through the Internet. There are twelve television sources: ABC Ch.

Also listened to is mArt , a broadcaster from Amsterdam founded by people from Suriname. Kondreman is one of the popular cartoons in Suriname.

Most tourists visit Suriname for the biodiversity of the Amazonian rain forests in the south of the country, which are noted for their flora and fauna.

The Central Suriname Nature Reserve is the biggest and one of the most popular reserves, along with the Brownsberg Nature Park which overlooks the Brokopondo Reservoir , one of the largest man-made lakes in the world.

The Maroons have learned that colorful and ornate pangis are popular with tourists. There are also many waterfalls throughout the country.

Raleighvallen, or Raleigh Falls, is a 56,hectare ,acre nature reserve on the Coppename River , rich in bird life.

Tafelberg Mountain in the centre of the country is surrounded by its own reserve — the Tafelberg Nature Reserve — around the source of the Saramacca River , as is the Voltzberg Nature Reserve further north on the Coppename River at Raleighvallen.

In the interior are many Maroon and Amerindian villages, many of which have their own reserves that are generally open to visitors.

Suriname is one of the few countries in the world where at least one of each biome that the state possesses has been declared a wildlife reserve.

Other attractions include plantations such as Laarwijk , which is situated along the Suriname River. This plantation can be reached only by boat via Domburg, in the north central Wanica District of Suriname.

Crime rates continue to rise in Paramaribo and armed robberies are not uncommon. According to the current U. Department of State Travel Advisory at the date of the report's publication, Suriname has been assessed as Level 1: exercise normal precautions.

The bridge was built during the tenure of President Jules Albert Wijdenbosch — and was completed in It connects Paramaribo with Commewijne, a connection which previously could only be made by ferry.

The purpose of the bridge was to facilitate and promote the development of the eastern part of Suriname. The bridge consists of two lanes one lane each way and is not accessible to pedestrians.

The construction of the Sts. Peter and Paul Cathedral started on 13 January Before it became a cathedral it was a theatre. The theatre was built in and burned down in Suriname is one of the few countries in the world where a synagogue is located next to a mosque.

A special characteristic of the temple is that it does not have images of the Hindu divinities, as they are forbidden in the Arya Samaj , the Hindu movement to which the people who built the temple belong.

Instead, the building is covered by many texts derived from the Vedas and other Hindu scriptures. The beautiful architecture makes the temple a tourist attraction.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the former Dutch colony, see Surinam Dutch colony. For the constituent country in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, see Suriname Kingdom of the Netherlands.

For other uses, see Suriname disambiguation. Country in South America. Douglas 3. Main article: History of Suriname.

Main article: Surinam Dutch colony. Main article: Willoughbyland. Further information: Human rights in Suriname.

See also: Decolonization of the Americas. Main article: Politics of Suriname. Main article: Foreign relations of Suriname.

Main article: Military of Suriname. Main articles: Districts of Suriname and Resorts of Suriname. Main article: Geography of Suriname.

Main article: Borders of Suriname. This section is an excerpt from Climate change in Suriname [ edit ]. Main article: Economy of Suriname.

Main articles: Demographics of Suriname and Surinamese people. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Ethnic groups of Suriname [60] Ethnic groups percent Hindustani. Main article: Religion in Suriname. Religion in Suriname, [7] Religion Percent Christianity.

Largest cities or towns in Suriname [68]. Main article: Culture of Suriname. Main article: Health in Suriname. Main article: Education in Suriname.

Main article: Biodiversity in Suriname. Suriname portal Caribbean portal. Archived from the original PDF on 29 June Archived from the original PDF on 10 September Retrieved 24 July Archived from the original on 13 November Suriname has a tropical climate.

The populated area in the north has four seasons: a minor rainy season from early December to early February, a minor dry season from early February to late April, a major rainy season from late April to mid-August, and a major dry season from mid-August to early December.

In the interior, diurnal temperature extremes can vary by as much as about 20 degrees. However, the range in average temperatures between the warmest month, September, and the coldest, January, is only about 3 degrees.

Rainfall is highest in the central and southeastern parts of the country. Annual rainfall averages about 75 inches 1, mm in the west and 95 inches 2, mm in Paramaribo.

The flora of the coastal area is better known than that of the interior. It consists of some 4, species of ferns and seed plants and a large number of mosses, weeds, and mildews.

The baboen Virola surinamensis , which grows in the coastal area, is used to make plywood. The kapok Ceiba pentandra reaches a height of more than feet 45 metres.

The Central Suriname Nature Reserve, covering nearly 3,, acres 1,, hectares , was established in June in west-central Suriname.

There are some species of mammals, including monkeys, wild pigs, deer, manatees, jaguars, ocelots, armadillos, sloths, and anteaters.

The tapir is the largest land mammal. Reptiles include caimans, iguanas, and the boa constrictor. The beaches on the eastern part of the coast are breeding grounds for marine turtles, which are protected by law.

About species of birds, including hummingbirds, vultures, and parrots, have been identified. Some species of fish occupy coastal and inland waters.

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